From thousands or years ago to present day and on every civilized continent, the eradication of entire groups of people has occurred. The civil war began when the armed wing of the rwandan patriotic front rpf invaded from. Cause and effects of the rwandan genocide, 1994 in august of 1994 the tutsi rpf group lead by kagame retook the capital and soon after, the rest of the country, ending the genocide. The purpose of this paper is to identify the historic and political causes for the rwandan genocide through an ethnic lens in order to determine whether ethnic division was really the cause for the atrocities or was rather just a dimension of. Answer 1 there were 2 groups of people in rwanda the tutsis and the hutus. The origin of the violence that transpired in rwanda during the latter half of the twentieth century is tied to the ways in which hutu and tutsi were treated differently by the colonial masters. Dec 06, 2012 one of the main causes of the genocide in rwanda can be traced back to the period of colonial rule over rwanda, where numerous policies of the imperialists left the rwandan society divided with tensions searing among its population during and after this colonial period. In april 1994, a terrible time for the country of rwanda only got worse. The death toll for this genocide ranged from about 500,000 people to a 1,000,000. Caricatured this way, and the fact that conflict, of which genocide is but an extreme manifestation, is nothing but competition by groups over incompatible goals, then one can easily visualize how the rwandan genocide was determined by cultural perceptions. Introduction this paper aims to discuss and examine the causes of the 1994 rwandan genocide.
Human occupation of rwanda is thought to have begun shortly after the last ice age. As for the tribes, 500,000 tutsi people were killed and villages across rwanda were totally demolished. About 70% of the rwandan population was killed after the rpf ended the civil war that was against government forces. The rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the tutsi, was a mass slaughter of tutsi, twa, and moderate hutu in rwanda, which took place between 7 april and 15 july 1994 during the rwandan civil war. Genocide is an action that is not unique to any one set of specific circumstances. That alone says something about changing international norms. A year later, at the height of the rwanda genocide, the lack of media images probably helped the cause of those in washington, london, paris and other. The genocide of the armenians, the holocaust and the genocide in rwanda are the three genocides of the twentieth century that fit that definition destexhe 1994. This study is significant because it will contribute to the understanding of the real causes of the conflict in order to. In this paper i will investigate the true motivation of the 1994 rwandan genocide as more than just social divide and ethnic hatred between the hutu and the tutsi. There are no noticeable differences between the two communities as they both use the same bantu. Hintjens abstract any adequate account of the 1994 genocide in rwanda must acknowledge manipulation by external forces, domestic pressures and psychological factors. A new book aims to shed light on the perfect storm that swamped rwanda in 1994, sparking genocide chris arnot tue 30 nov 2010 03. May 17, 2011 in just three months, an estimated 800,000 people were massacred in the rwandan genocide of 1994.
There can be no durable solution unless the root causes of the conflicts are addressed. The infamous rwandan genocide was triggered by the tensions between the hutus and tutsis. In 2007, the rwandan government abolished the death penalty, which had last been carried out in 1998 when 22 people convicted of genocide related crimes were executed. Sample essay on causes and effects of rwandan genocide. When the hutus discovered their reign had ended they feared tutsi backlash and about 2 million. Explaining rwandas 1994 genocide university of denver.
A summary of the rwandan genocide the genocide on 6 april 1994, the deaths of the presidents of burundi and rwanda in a place crash caused by a rocket attack, ignited several weeks of intense and systematic massacres. What was the cause of the genocide in rwanda answers. The killings as many as 1 million people are estimated to have perished shocked the international community. The colonial power further polarized the groups by classifying rwandans into ethnic groups and making it obligatory for them to carry ethnic identity cards. During the rwandan genocide of 1994, members of the hutu ethnic majority in the eastcentral african nation of rwanda murdered as many as 800,000 people. The causes and consequences of genocide essay 849 words cram. Even so, the nature of the rwandan state must be seen as absolutely central. It lies 75 miles southward of equator, 880 miles west of indian ocean, and 1,250 miles east of atlantic ocean. Mar 07, 2015 introduction this paper aims to discuss and examine the causes of the 1994 rwandan genocide. Two tribes that made most of the rwandan population are the hutu and the tutsi tribes. The rwandan genocide, a mass slaughter of the tutsi race during the rwandan civil war was conducted by the hutu ethnic group during a 100 day period from april 7th to july 9th 1990. The effect on their social and political roles lisa a. The digest focuses on case law regarding genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, individual responsibility.
Before the 1994 genocide, these groups made up 89 per cent, 10 per cent and one per cent of the population, respectively. In its motivation and construction, mamdani argues, the rwandan genocide needs to be understood as a natives genocide. Pdf environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in. The 1994 rwanda genocide was the result of an economic crisis, civil war, population growth and a struggle for state power. The president of rwanda at the time, juv enal habyarimana, had decid ed, after long opposition, to comply with the arusha accords and put an end to the crisis and civil war. In this essay, the causes of modern genocide will be investigated using these three genocides as case studies. Main causes of the 1994 rwanda genocide causes of rwanda. In 1994, rwanda erupted into one of the most appalling cases of mass murder the world had witnessed since the second world war.
Rwanda is a landlocked country in central africa heart of africa, country is also known as land of thousand hills with land area of 26,338km 2. This paper addresses the root causes of the rwandan ethnic conflict from a historical point of view. Nov 30, 2010 a new book aims to shed light on the perfect storm that swamped rwanda in 1994, sparking genocide chris arnot tue 30 nov 2010 03. Many scholars believe the long lasting ethnic conflict between the hutu and tutsi was the seed to the development of the genocide. Rwanda is an african country that comprises of three ethnic communities. On the eve of the tenth anniversary of the rwanda genocide, the school of journalism and communication at carleton university in ottawa hosted a oneday symposium on march 2004, entitled the media and the rwanda genocide. Causes of genocide in 1944 after the second world war a man named raphael lempkin coined the word genocide.
This paper uses a geographical perspective, more specifically the geography of conflict, to assess the environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in rwanda, more than a decade after the genocide. When the belgians arrived, they thought that the country needed a leading group, so they put the tutsis in charge. The international panel of eminent personalities to investigate the. The conception of origins that follows has been applied to analyses of the holo caust, the genocide of the armenians. The genocide was conceived by extremist elements of rwandas majority hutu population who planned to kill the minority. Jan 12, 2018 the rwandan genocide resulted from the conflict between the hutus and the tutsis. It was a genocide by those who saw themselves as sons and daughters of the soil, and their mission as one of clearing the soil of a threatening alien presence. The hutu who are of bantu origin comprises of the largest ethnic group making 84 percent of the population of rwanda. Just before and during the 1994 genocide, hutu political leaders insisted on the importance of protecting the gains of the revolution, which. Environmental causes and impacts of the genocide in rwanda.
Analyze the causes of the rwandan genocide the writepass. In just three months, an estimated 800,000 people were massacred in the rwandan genocide of 1994. Causes and consequences of the rwandan conflict politics essay. Sep 01, 2005 among the more proximate causes of the mass murders in rwanda were.
An estimated one million, or possibly more, men women and children were brutally slaughtered. Origins, causes, implementation, consequences, and the post genocide era donatien nikuze research and documentation center on genocide, national commission for the fight against genocid, republic of rwanda abstract. He claims that histories make men wise, which in the context of the rwandan genocide, seems to mean learning and making an effort to understand. Genocide is the killing of a group of people with the intent to destroy, and even though the word genocide wasnt around until 1944 doesnt mean that genocide wasnt around. Causes and effects of rwandan genocide, 1994 by devika. This ideologically driven genocide is a clear example of state sponsored massmurder. History causes of rwandan genocide flashcards quizlet. By the 16th century, the inhabitants had organized into a number of kingdoms. The rwandan genocide was a worldhistorical event that happened in a country with a tiny international presence. The country was ravaged by civil war, genocide, mass migrations, economic crisis, diseases, return of refugees and environmental destruction. Among the more proximate causes of the mass murders in rwanda were.
A brief history of the country rwanda s population of more than 7 million people is divided into three ethnic groups. Rwanda genocide of 1994, planned campaign of mass murder in rwanda that occurred over the course of some 100 days in apriljuly 1994. Explaining the 1994 genocide in rwanda semantic scholar. The genocide in rwanda took place over the course of 100 days, beginning in april 1994, and is known as one of the most brutal acts of murder ever committed. Both have also experienced regular, extreme massive violence. Rwanda and rwandan citizens responsible for genocide and other such violations. The origins and prevention of genocide, mass killing, and. Origins, causes, implementation, consequences, and the postgenocide era donatien nikuze research and documentation center on genocide, national commission for the fight against genocid, republic of rwanda abstract. Burundi and rwanda are small east african countries with almost identical economic, social, and political features.
Causes and effects of the genocide the rwandan genocide. Causes and effects of rwandan genocide can be understood properly by understanding the background of this country first. It was a genocide by those who saw themselves as sons and daughters of the soil, and their mission as one of clearing the soil of a. Causes of rwandan genocide high quality essay examples and. Rwandan families were affected by and are still dealing with impacts such as death, disease, disability, poverty, loss of dignity and imprisonment. In 2007, the rwandan government abolished the death penalty, which had last been carried out in 1998 when 22 people convicted of genociderelated crimes were executed.
Essay the causes and consequences of the rwandan genocide in of studies, francis bacon explores the benefits and consequences associated with studies and to what degree they should be used. The background and causes of the genocide in rwanda oxford. The genocide was conceived by extremist elements of rwandas majority hutu population who planned to kill the minority tutsi population and anyone who opposed those. A summary of the rwandan genocide polytechnic school. View of an open tomb at the rwandan genocide memorial in kigali, rwanda. However, the picture we natural resource scarcity and violence in rwanda 207. The genocide in rwanda, like all genocides, was a complex phenomenon that resulted from a combination of longterm structural factors as well as more. Pdf causes of rwandan genocide and how it could be. Zaire and in a belated attempt to redress past injustices the colonial. Main causes of the 1994 rwanda genocide explore rwanda tours. The genocide also resulted in drastic economic consequences. In the 19th century, mwami rwabugiri of the kingdom of rwanda conducted a decadeslong process of military conquest and administrative consolidation that resulted in the kingdom coming to control most of what is now rwanda. The genocide in rwanda, like all genocides, was a complex phenomenon that resulted from a combination of longterm structural factors as well as more immediate decisions taken by powerful actors. Causes and effects of the genocide all genocides usually start when people of one race or religion want to dispose of people of another race or religion.
In the late twentieth and early twentyfirst centuries, the gravest violations of human rights generate intense international concern even in small landlocked countries in. Background and causes of the genocide in rwanda journal of. Abstract during 100 days in the spring and summer of 1994 in rwanda a planned genocide orchestrated by extreme members of the hutu ethnic group, the ruling faction. The international panel of eminent personalities to investigate the 1994 genocide in rwanda and the surrounding events was created by the.1545 157 696 1594 1054 701 1497 847 598 635 1271 1368 173 517 1519 380 841 211 737 429 643 477 455 102 1539 154 1547 1180 1158 1689 568 92 329 1038 201 837 1325 470 1111 1258 371 1065 651 656